The pre-production trucks hauled battery packs from Nevada to California.
The Tesla Semi has made its first cargo trip, starting with a shipment between the company's own factories.
"First production cargo trip of the Tesla Semi heavy duty truck, carrying battery packs from the Gigafactory in the Nevada mountains to the car factory in California," CEO Elon Musk wrote on Instagram.
The achievement was likely an incremental development after the prototype semis had been spotted for many weeks on public roads without trailers in tow.
The fastest route from the Nevada Gigafactory to Fremont is around 260 miles, with a top elevation of 7,239 feet as Interstate 80 crosses the Sierra Nevadas near Donner Pass.
Tesla claims the trucks will have a maximum range of approximately 500 miles when fully laden with cargo.